Processing as resource

Processing as resource

Composting of Wastes: –Organic matter constitutes 35% to 40% of the municipal solid waste generated in India. This waste can be recycled by the method of composting, one of the oldest forms of disposal. It is the natural process of decomposition of organic waste that yields manure or compost, which is very rich in nutrients.

Composting is a biological process in which micro-organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria convert degradable organic waste into humus like substance. It recycles the nutrients and returns them to the soil as nutrients. The process of composting ensures the waste that is produced in the kitchens is not carelessly thrown and left to rot. Apart from being clean, cheap and safe, composting can significantly reduce the amount of disposable garbage.

Some Benefits:- Compost allows the soil to retain more plant nutrients over a longer period.

  1. It supplies part of the 16 essential elements needed by the plants.
  2. It helps reduce the adverse effects of excessive alkalinity, acidity, or the excessive use of chemical fertilizer.

III. It makes soil easier to cultivate.

  1. It helps keep the soil cool in summer and worm in winter.
  2. It aids in preventing soil erosion by keeping the soil covered.
  3. It helps in controlling the growth of weeds in the garden.

VII. Vermi-composting has become very popular in the last few years. In this method, worms are added to the compost. These help to break the waste and added exerea of the worms makes the compost very rich in nutrients.

The composting process is carried out by three classes of microbes:

  1. Psychrophiles – low temperature microbes
  2. Mesophiles – medium temperature microbes

III. Thermophiles – high temperature microbes.

Composting Period:

The composting period is governed by a number of factors including, temperature, moisture, oxygen, particle size, the carbon – to – nitrogen ratio and the degree of turning involved. Generally, effective management of these factors will accelerate the composting process.